Corruption and Manipulation of State Institutions in Southeast Asia
1330–1500, Saturday 16 April 2016, C2
University of Oxford
Paper 1: The Involvement of Militarised Non-Governmental Organisations in Securing Indonesian Ports
This paper explains the involvement of militarised non-governmental organisations to secure Indonesian ports in three areas: Jakarta, Batam and Bitung. Outsourcing security has become one of the main features of Indonesia’s government policy in a bid to improve port security. These civilian groups work in conjunction with the Indonesian Police, Army, Navy and Air Force in securing Indonesia’s maritime interests. This paper asks two questions related to this development: First, is the use of militarised non-governmental actors the product of the securitisation of borders after 9/11? Second, does this policy represent a change of direction or a continuation of the pre 9/11 policy?
Efforts to improve ports security are not only a matter of national security concern for Indonesia. They are important for the international community because the country occupies a vitally important position in global maritime transportation. Examining Indonesia’s port security practices will also help to map the contradictions and implications of the use of civilian groups in Indonesia’s efforts to establish a democratic civil society.
This paper argues that despite reform the use of militarised non-governmental actors continues to be seen as a beneficial instrument by Indonesian decision making actors. The involvement of civilian groups that are attached to political parties, linked to religious organisations, or are characterized as independent youth/gangster organisations in security represents a continuation in Indonesia’s security practices.
Paper 2: The implication of employee relocation policy on the employees’ motivation in an Indonesian government organisation: a case study of the Indonesian Audit Board.
University of York
This study explores the implication of relocation policy on employees’ work motivation in an Indonesian government organisation. A case study with qualitative method is chosen for several reasons: 1) The case study organisation has been expanded quite vastly due to the amendment of the 1945 Indonesian Constitution in 2001 which obliged the Audit Board of RI to have a regional office in each province of Indonesia. Thus, since 2008, it has expanded from seven regional offices to 34 regional offices, resulting in relocating the employees from one province to another. The author believed it would be interesting to obtain points of view, both from the employees and managers of the organisation about the impact of such relocation; 2) Research on the Indonesian public sector, particularly in its HRM is scarce, thus this research is expected to contribute to the number and the improvement of public sector HRM in Indonesia; 3) Much research on the impact of relocation practice has utilised quantitative methods to test their hypotheses. While the research can provide a general pattern on any hypothesis tested, it has a risk that it lacks detailed explanation on what the people really think or feel. Hence, this study is expected to complement all the research using the quantitative method. Within this paper, the author will share her experience during fieldwork, including about her role as a researcher (insider and outsider), and the issues encountered during the data collection process.
Paper 3: Black ducks, backstabbing and no stopping! : Using visual methods in the study of corruption and organisational change in an Indonesian public institution.
Gusti Ayu Indah Ratnasari
University of York
Despite the plethora of research in organisational change and corruption, the connection between the two phenomena has been largely neglected in the literature. This study will fill the gap in the literature by providing empirical evidence on the link between organisational change and corruption. It will explore whether organisational change deters or triggers corruption and whether corruption might facilitate or hinder the change initiative. To achieve these objectives, case study is employed as a research strategy.
The case organisation is the Indonesian Tax Authority, which has undergone a change initiative (i.e. the reformation or modernisation of the tax authority) since 2002 and encountered corruption problems in the tax administration. In addition to semi-structured interviews and focus groups with the tax officials, visual methods, which involved drawings and photographs, are used in gathering the data. This paper will focus on the discussion of the use of the visual method, as it is a less common research method employed in organisational change and corruption studies. Some of the interviews data will also be presented, to assist the assessment on the visual method. The empirical data show that the organisational change is perceived as ‘cleansing water’ which has cleaned the ‘muddy ducks’ into the ‘white’ ones. The change effort is also believed has shifted the nature of corruption in the organisation, i.e. from ‘systemic’ or ‘congregation’ corruption into more individual and limited. Nevertheless, corruption does persist after the reform. This issue and its impacts on the change initiative are powerfully portrayed in the black ducks, backstabbing and non-stopping sign images.