Equitable and Sustainable Development in SEA III: Land Use Systems
1530–1700, Saturday 16 April 2016, L5
University of Oxford
List of Papers:
- Paper 1: Sufficiency Economy Philosophy : A Solution to Harmonize Human and Environmental Welfare : Case Study Chang Hua Mun Royal Project : Hua Hin Thailand
- Paper 2: Freeport in Papua, Indonesia: Benefit Sharing and Human Rights
- Paper 3: Challenges in linking economic and social policy with environmental policy: rice Intensification in An Giang Province, Vietnam
- Paper 4: When Things Go Wrong: Lessons from past urbanism, climate change and Eurocentrism
Paper 1: Sufficiency Economy Philosophy : A Solution to Harmonize Human and Environmental Welfare : Case Study Chang Hua Mun Royal Project : Hua Hin Thailand
Thailand has progressed in terms of economic well being at the expense of the environment. Deforestation was viewed as the means of opening more land for farming. In some cases encroachment was done to build resorts to support the growing tourism trade. This statistics now has changed from 2005 – 2010 showing a positive move of reduced deforestation and even a slight growth in the number of forest area.
For a long-term solution to the problem both the people and the forest must be able to co-exist in harmony. If the productivity of the land were improved, there would be less need to encroach upon the forests. In addition the vegetation resulting from what is called the “New Approach to Agriculture” will create an ecosystem that will play a part in bringing back the abundance of the area.
To achieve this goal of harmony between humans and the forest, planned agriculture is not sufficient. Based on the principles of Sufficiency Economy developed by His Majesty the King, it involves creating a market for the produce to ensure that the farmers will get a good price for their crops. Based on this same principle of harmony His Majesty has set up the Suwannachart Co., Ltd. that operates Golden Place, a supermarket that maximizes the value of the products sold to the customers, while giving the highest possible price to the farmers, who are the suppliers. By ensuring that everyone in the value chain is satisfied humans and the environment harmonise in creating shared value.
Paper 2: Freeport in Papua, Indonesia: Benefit Sharing and Human Rights
Riza Aryani and Jenny Lee
Extractive companies are expected to deliver benefits for stakeholders affected by mining projects. However, creating a proper benefit sharing mechanism is often challenging, especially in developing countries like Indonesia. This paper discusses the current benefit sharing arrangement of Freeport-McMoRan Inc. in Indonesia and how it is problematic, especially in the human rights perspective. One of the primary human rights violations is the denial of the West Papuan right to self-determination. This paper argues that in order to secure and maintain the social license to operate, extractive companies like Freeport need to address externalities, such as the lack of government capacity and systematic corruption in Indonesia. In order to design an effective benefit sharing system, we recommend proper implementation mechanisms and monitoring tools. We examine the corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative intended for the Antamina Mines of Peru as a possible foundation for altering Freeport Indonesia’s relationship with the Papuans. The task of creating, executing, and monitoring an impactful model is a formidable one. We recognize this fact and conclude with the importance of examining specific obstacles in the way of achieving a credible system for benefit sharing.
Paper 3: Challenges in linking economic and social policy with environmental policy: rice Intensification in An Giang Province, Vietnam
Royal Agricultural University
This paper sets out significant economic and social gains in An Giang Province, in the Mekong Delta, while drawing attention to negative environmental impacts and apparent lack of connection between economic/social policy and environmental policy. It results from fieldwork with farmers and other stakeholders during doctoral studies (2001-2004) and further visits in 2011-2014
An Giang Province is consistently one of Vietnam’s most prolific producers of rice. Between 2005 and 2013 rice production rose by 28%, while national production rose by 23%. This has been achieved through raising dyke walls sufficiently to exclude flood waters entering polders during the monsoon season, when river water is also at its highest. These flood-free compartments are used to grow up to three crops of high yielding varieties of rice per year. Much of this rice is exported, from which corporation tax is raised, and this has part-funded the development of a new university and medical school, thus meeting the province’s policy of socio-economic development. However, negative environmental impacts of continuous cropping are apparent, but are not well recognised by policy makers, and farmers need to use increasing amounts of fertiliser, thus reducing their income. Further work is urgently needed to establish alternative crops, such as a legume, and the inclusion of environmental impact into future policy making. Finally, reference will be made to a possible ‘Change Agent’ in the form of a small area of traditional rice growing from which academic researchers and policy makers may gain useful insight.
Paper 4: When Things Go Wrong: Lessons from past urbanism, climate change and Eurocentrism
University of Sydney
Today more people are living in urban areas than rural. This behavioural shift is reshaping nations, economics, environmental, materiality and military pressures. Similar to today, ancient Southeast Asia saw the rise of urbanism, long distance trade and dramatic environmental challenges. An understanding of how these challenges effected the region provides new insights into the challenges of contemporary Southeast Asia.
This is a presentation of my current research at The University of Sydney. Exploring the rise and demise of Southeast Asian urban societies, will help us understand some of the ways contemporary complex urban systems behave. My research uses comparative landscape archaeology to examine the responses of settlements in maritime Southeast Asia to issues of climate change and associated challenges.
My research reveals surprising trans-regional patterning that calls into question past presumptions that have used Eurocentric approaches. Specifically low density urban models need to be considered in light of the Greater Angkor Projects research in Cambodia.
Today Southeast Asian cities are, like those in the past, forming large unsustainable low density urban systems. These require significantly more energy to operate than small high density cities. The ecological and economic footprint of these settlements is dramatically increased. As a result these cities are functionally more susceptible to climate change, natural disasters and fluctuations of trade. Due to the different needs of low density urbanism, it may be necessary to rethink the networks of labour and resources required to grow, maintain and defend such large urban systems. This explains the sudden and dramatic demise of cities in the ancient world and provides important lessons for us today.